Monday, 23 February 2015

CONFLICT TRANSFORMATION (CT) IN NORTHERN NIGERIA THROUGH ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN

In the past five years, northern Nigeria has witnessed a heavy dose of conflict due to the activities of armed bandits (AB) and Boko Haram (BH) insurgents. The statistics as regards the casualties depends on who you are talking to (Salkida 2014, Aljazeera, 2014).

Many analysts associate the phenomenon of rural banditry (RB), and indeed BH insurgency with the failure of the state to provide security and basic services for the populace. The principle of the triangle of criminality (Women's Defense Institute, 2010) posits that for a crime like RB to occur, there should be:

*A motivated offender, in this case the rural bandit attracted by cattle, goats and sheep. The cattle, in particular, have high economic value and are easily disposable. Sometimes, the abduction of women, girls and boys could be part of the mix.
*An available and suitable target. Suitable targets are the unprotected citizens in rural Nigeria.
*No authority figure to prevent the attack from taking place because many rural areas remain ungoverned.

The foregoing triangle exhibits the vulnerability of the rural populace to attacks by armed bandits and insurgents who constantly wreak havoc in their domain. My current research has identified and compiled a list of needy women in Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps who need micro-credit to overcome contemporary economic challenges of day-to-day existence, while other aspects of CT like the military option continue. I am ready to use my resources to fund the pilot phase of the project, after which local & international agencies would be approached to fund subsequent stages of the project.

Ethnicity and social differences have been deployed as tools to divide and generate conflict among various groups that have hitherto lived together harmoniously. AB and BH insurgency may well be a political economy problem as a result of the absence of equitable access to resources, and a deliberate agenda to exclude others from social formations.

Banditry and BH activities lead to disruption of life as we know it. The desire to avoid strife and its attendant consequences leads to displacement, loss of life and property. AB and BH activity also lead to the existence of constant fear of attack, which takes away human dignity and ability to organize, seek and receive livelihood.

When social services are rolled back, women bear the brunt, as they carry additional burden, irrespective of the fact that their child-bearing and nurturing roles are tasking enough. When the state fails to provide essential services, women are forced to stand in the gap. Such unconventional roles for women are even more problematic in situations of conflict, strife or unrest as could be occasioned by AB, BH and retaliatory action.

Through this effort, my team and I stand in the gap with the women of northern Nigeria, while identifying Borno and Adamawa states for the pilot project. The areas we are concentrating on for the award of the micro-credit grants are petty trading, handwork, cottage industry, etc.

The compiled list of potential beneficiaries of such micro-credit would form the core of the expansion of the project to other parts of northern Nigeria. This effort is expected to assuage the level of deprivation experienced by the women and their families in the interim.

18th July, 2016

*Donate & let's feed IDPs, restore their dignity    https://t.co/s4TxbXlCNC
*The clash between the Nigerian Army & the Islamic movement in Nigeria by Jibrin Ibrahim    https://t.co/Tje7dv3vb7
*Trade of terror: Blood money    http://www.amazon.com/trade-terror-blood...
*Islam vs the rest: The 3rd World War    https://www.linkedin.com/groups/1882332
*About 250,000 severely malnourished children in Borno IDP camps may die soon    http://wp.me/p3x1r-cAC
*UN aid convoy ambushed in Northern Nigeria by suspected militant Islamists    bbc.in/2agOUWs
*BH in Nigeria: IS names Abu Musab al-Barnawi named new leader    www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-36963711
*Who's running BH?    https://www.theatlantic.com/news/archive/2016/08/boko-haram-leadership/
*US hosts northern Nigeria governors in Washington    http://www.premiumtimesng.com/news/...
*Nigeria: JTF discovers Benue militants' armoury    http://www.allafrica.com/stories/201610190120.html
*Many Borno schools unsafe years after Chibok abductions    www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/213382-many-borno-schools-unsafe-years-chibok-abductions-report.html
*Nigeria must not transform the Shiites into enemies    opinion.premiumtimesng.com/2016/10/21/175443
*BH has displaced north-east Nigeria educationally    linkis.com/allafrica/...html
*The BH crisis & the narratives of resistance in northern Nigeria: The case of Sokoto state    https://goo.gl/mLnvoO
*60% of BH insurgents are foreigners, says Bratai     https://t.co/9QvMe1sShe    https://t.co/Rd2cPQ7RDh
*Is BH invoking Kanem Bornu legacy?    bit.ly/2ejU4BL    bit.ly/BokoHistory
*Nigeria: American University of Nigeria (AUN), Yola, uses social media to fight religious extremism    https://t.co/P1mnYU6aoO
*N.E. Nigeria: Small African region with more refugees than all of Europe    https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/nov/26/boko-haram-nigeria-famine-hunger
*Nigeria must tackle poverty, underdevelopment to deter BH    premiumtimesng.com/news/218461-nigeria...
*Help IDP Borno    http://www.crowdfunder.co.uk/help-idp-borno/
*'Camp zero', the last stronghold of Sambisa has fallen    https://t.co/FyUC86brlU
*Hope amidst the horror in northern Nigeria    http://www.insightonconflict.org/blog/2016/12/hope-amidst...
*1,000 days after kidnap, 195 girls still with BH    https://t.co/vOQdxn41lh
*Nigeria: How Army prevents dozens of BH suicide attacks    http://allafrica.com/stories/2017...
*Nigeria: CITAD releases staggering figures of hate speeches    https://t.co/gfVOaxl33v
*Artificial intelligence & the future of warfare    cht.hm/2j7Ba37

4th August, 2016

*Abubakar Shekau reappears again after ISIS named his successor    http://saharareporters.com/2016/08/03/boko-haram-appears...
*BH ambush UN, NGOs' convoy in Nigeria, 2 soldiers & 3 civilians injured    http://goo.gl/qGmQpd
*ISIS & the care bears    https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/isis-world-care-bears-jonathan...
*Pope says Catholicism can be just as violent as Islam    http://liberalamerica.org/2016/08/02/breaking-pope-francis...
*BH's new leader promises not to target Muslims     edition.cnn.com/2016/08/03/africa/nigerias-boko-haram-new-leader/
*IS: Obama says group is weakening, but still a threat    bbc.co.uk
*A group therapy session in CAR helps heal children suffering from PTSD    aje.io/s8ge
*The northern Governors' symposium in the USA    http://www.viviangist.com/the-northern-nigeria-governors...
*'We don't do child soldiering in fighting BH, FG tells USA    http://allafrica.com/stories/201610270108.html
*Addressing the crisis in the north-east    https://t.co/ulwHV5QuKW
*Photographer captures what life in Borno, north-east Nigeria is really like    http://www.glamour.com/story-photographer-captures-life...
*A renewed commitment to lift northern Nigeria out of poverty    opinion.premiumtimesng.com/2016/10/25/175505
*Does the Islamic State threaten al-Shabaab's hegemony?    https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/does-the...
*Gallantry Fall: September - November 2016    http://ecowascounterterrorism.org
*151 killed by terrorists in Zamfara state as Nigeria Police focus on killing Shia Muslims    newsrescue.com/151-killed-terrorists-zamfara-state-nigeria-police-focus-killing-shia-muslims/
*Chibok still under BH siege    http://t.co/wV2dWoIG2K
*3,213 pregnancies recorded in Bakassi IDP camp, Maiduguri in 6 months!    https://twitter.com/hashtag/maiduguri...
*How we will reclaim north-eastern Nigeria by Tijani Musah    https://t.co/LPltvOCRgb
*In Nigeria, a catastrophic hunger crisis looms in BH's wake    huff.to/2io83V2
*Sambisa forest to serve as training ground for Nigerian Army    https://t.co/n4OkbTcXeO
*Presidential committee adopts 'Buhari plan' on north-east crisis    https:t.co/gBiOlvspnH
*Borno state Governor Shettima asks 'non-performing' NGOs' to leave; says only 8 of 126 NGOs are helping IDPs - 118 others only smiling to banks    https://twitter.com/hashtag/shettima...
*FG seeks $400m World Bank loan to rebuild north-east    https://t.co/hCQMIDCZmt
*Nigeria: DSS arrests BH members in Lagos, Taraba, Nasarawa & Kogi    https://t.co/4xCidCwgUa

5th August, 2016

*ISS: Dead or alive - The seven lives of BH's leader    http://www.defenceweb.co.za/
*Insecurity: Soldiers deployed in 30 of Nigeria's 36 states - Report    www.premiumtimes.com/news/.../insecurity-soldiers-deployed...
*It's not true, it's not correct to say Islam is terrorism - Pope    www.vanguardngr.com/2016/08/not-true-not-correct-say-islam-terrorism-pope/
*Deadlier than BH, Niger Delta Avengers are devastating Nigeria    https://fronteranews.com/news/africa/niger-delta-avengers...
*Our next action is to kill Christians in Nigeria, no bombing of mosques - New BH leader    http://www.orsu24news.com/next-action-kill-christians-nigeria...
*BH splits over leadership    https://www.newsbreaking.ng/2016/08/breaking.ng/2016/08/breaking-boko-haram-splits...
*Nigeria: Tackling malnutrition in Borno state    www.doctorswithoutborders.org/article/nigeria-tackling-malnutrition-borno-state
*Clerics seek protection of worship centres in north-east Nigeria    disq.us/t/2ghr9zd
*ICG: Women's experiences of BH conflict    http://bit.ly/Africa242
*Nigeria: House of Representatives passes bipartisan legislation to combat BH    http://allafrica.com/.../201612080325.html
*Misery of the Nigerian refugees & IDPs    opinion.premiumtimesng.com/2014/12/22/misery-nigerian-refugees-internally-displaced-persons.../
*Combining basic mobile technology & traditional media, JARI empowers north-east Nigeria to share their own story their way    https://twitter.com/mobilepunch
*Buhari's plan to rebuild NE Nigeria - Short, medium & long term    https://t.co/l5pZmaYYX
*Study of community-level conflict management mechanisms in the Niger Delta, Middle Belt & North-East zones, Nigeria    wef.ch/2hOoVkh
*Known unknowns & the fight against Violent Extremism (VE)    https://issafrica.org/iss-today/known-unknown...
*Nigeria Army arrests 40 foreigners after Sambisa forest fall    http://nigeriatalkingdrum.com/2016/12/army-arrest...
*Sambisa: Captured Frenchman repairs APCs    www.dailytrust.com.ng/.../sambisa-captured-frenchman-repairs-apcs/177947.html
*Erikosonian analysis of terrorism in West Africa: Security & forensic    http://www.igi-global.com/.../eriksonian-analysis...
*Nigeria's first confirmed drone strike against BH (video)    http://www.popsci.com/watch-nigeria-first-confirmed-drone-strike...
*Lt. Col. Abu Ali's death: Why BH's killing more Nigerian soldiers    http://www.premiumtimesng.com/.../col-alis-death     

10th August, 2016

*'Why we started killing people' by BH    askbbcnews.com/why-we-started-killing-people-boko-haram-reveal/
*Why Pope Francis won't link Islam to terrorism    trib.al/QCsvfbu
*Ibtihaj Mohammed: The first Olympian to compete in hijab from the USA    bbc.in/2aKZUt6
*No coincidences in terrorism attacks    https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/coincidences-terror-attacks-ahmet...
*Who calls the shots in BH?    https://www.issafrica.org/events/view-on-africa-who-calls-the-shots-in-boko-haram
*The 10,000 kidnapped boys of BH    https://t.co/AXlsUwxjzv    www.wsj.com/articles/the-kidnapped-boys-of-boko-haram-1471013062
*BH has forced thousands of boys & girls in Nigeria to become child jihadists    https://t.co/ph70Tfdnsy    https://t.co/CpVpMwiOmj
*BH: Behind the rise of Nigeria's armed group    https://t.co/lV7BUbDE6s
*Foiled terror attack on the USA: Obama writes PMB, hails DSS    leadership.ng/?p=565354
*Freed Chibok girls return home for Xmas    cnn.it/2hwZXOj
*After losing Sambisa, BH fighters surrender to Niger Republic authorities    https://t.co/MlSZ6NhInY
*While radicalised youths make the news, young activists against violent extremism (VE) rarely get the limelight    sfcg.org/cy-and-cve/
*Shekau appears in video, says when he'll stop fighting     dlvr.it/Mzzy2G    dlvr.it/Mzzzmv
*Nigeria's Army says 3,000 people who fled BH return to hometown    https://t.co/a5qOMeHIQG
*Man purporting to be BH leader denies Sambisa forest defeat    buff.ly/2hBdiF3
*BH: Group urges Nigerians to be vigilant to prevent terrorists from regrouping    allafrica.com/stories/201612290538.html
*Chibok, Sambisa & the struggle for liberation    https://t.co/8BLkPOCvmZ
*What does it mean to be at war with 'Radical Islam'?: On the attraction & dangers of a vague term    https://t.co/eAno9UBj9u
*BH insurgency: Nearly 1.8m Nigerians have been forced to flee their homes - These are their stories    cnn.it/2juPuz4
*Forced out of towns in the Sahel, Africa's Jihadists go rural    https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/west-africa/mali/...
*Nigeria: WHO begins vaccination of 4.7m children in north-east    http://t.co/xsgJ9dxEgR
*Empower IDPs: Emotional video by IDPs    https://web.facebook.com/hashtag/empowerborno?...
*Nigeria cited as most dangerous place for Christians in the world by US Congress    https://www.today.ng/news/world/254855/nigeria-cited...

17th August, 2016

*Security sector reform in democratic Nigeria    www.securityanddevelopment.org/www...org/pdf/work2pdf
*Severe food crisis continues to kill hundreds in Nigeria's north-east    https://t.co/98cdsPTvoH    https://t.co/bs/9iFmOeM
*BH leadership struggle heralds a new style of violence    https:www.issafrica.org/iss-today/boko-haram...
*IDPs in Maiduguri, where malnutrition rates are going through the roof    https://t.co/cvb3j8EkUw.com/
*Borno government trains 1,000 IDPs on self-defense against rape    https://t.co/CPclO1Ylt    https://t.co/DgOXwYmkB
*Why are the burqa & burkini so controversial?    edition.cnn.com/2016/08/19/europe/burqa-burkini-bans/
*The negotiator, Aisha Wakil, BH calls 'mummy' is Igbo    newsrescue.com/woman-aisha-wakil-boko-haram-calls-mummy-igbo/
*BH: Nigeria's Army's 3 wanted friends    https://t.co/KlVVy8rNSO
*BH oppression in Nigeria in pictures    https://t.co/cEk9cKDldV    https://t.co/NPaUx1XETL
*Assessing MNJTF's fight against BH    https://www.issafrica.org/events/view-on-africa...
*Repentant BH members urge colleagues to lay down arms    https://t.co/wOPEUZuL
*Beyond BH: Fundamentalism in Nigeria    http://www.genderhub.org/.../beyond-boko-haram-fundamentalism...
*With 10 major security operations across Nigeria, Military stretched too thin    bit.ly/2clkUEg
*Countering the BH group in Nigeria: The relevance of Hybrid Doctrine    http://smallwarsjournal.com/...
*How we dismantled BH leadership - DSS    http://bulwarkintelligence.com/curated-osint/how-we-dismantled-boko-haram...
*Examining the security situation in Nigeria    https://www.youtube.com/watch...    https://www.channelstv.com
*2017: Can we turn the tables on adversity?    http://punchng.com/2017-can-turn-tables-adversity/
*Foreign fighters among BH    https://www.youtube.com/...
*2016 in retrospect: The insurgency    https://www.youtube.com/watch
*How BH forced many Nigerian mothers, children into prostitution    https://www.naij.com/.../mothers-children-forced-prostitution-boko-haram...
*NEMA's efforts in managing humanitarian crisis in north-east Nigeria    http://guardian.ng/.../nemas-efforts-in-managing-humanitarian-crisis-in-the-northeast/
*Global index rates BH deadliest terrorist group    http://allafriac.com/...

21st August, 2016

*Economic downturn, Islamist attacks cause hunger to spread in Nigeria says UN    af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKCN1OU1GW
*BH divided    https:www.issafrica.org/media-room/videos-and-infographics/boko-haram-divided
*BH: Over 23,000 killed, 2 million displaced    https://t.co/u5A9tiQnu    https://t.co/5gVcULo3Fe
*Insecurity: Soldiers deployed in 30 of Nigeria's 36 states    www.premiumtimes.com/news/more-news/208055-insecurity-soldiers-deployed-30-nigeria
*BH & Niger Delta Avengers: Nigeria's terrorists    http://www.viva-naija.com/boko-haram-niger-delta-avengers...
*300 BH terrorists killed as Nigerian Air Force (NAF) intensifies aerial bombings    https://t.co/dVGcqX6Wq
*BH: ECOWAS wants international community to empower Multinational JTF (MNJTF)    links.com/www.authority.com/KOk2k
*How to stop ISIS expansion in Africa    https://issafrica.org/events/view-on-africa...
*Countering Violent Extremism (CVE): Internal security should be the priority of any CVE initiative    http://www.dawn.com/news/.../countering-violent-extremism
*Can the JTF against BH stay the course?    https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/can-the-joint-task-forcee...
*If we don't tame religion, it'll kill Nigeria - Soyinka    http://punchng.com/dont-tame-religion-itll-kill-nigeria/
*Why Hillary Clinton's state department didn't list BH as terrorist group (video)    http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/politics/DC-dept... 

29th August, 2016

*Nigerian billionaire, Dangote, visits Maiduguri, meets ex-wives of BH fighters    www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/209470-nigerian-billionaire-dangote-visits-maiduguri...    https://t.co/Jc3rGVMk1u/
*Improving nutritional status of malnourished children: The role of teamwork    https://t.co/ebEyVDJCDi
*Paul David aka Bono (Co-founder of ONE Campaign) & Dangote visit Nigeria's IDP camp    http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa...
*Nigeria targets officials accused of stealing food from BH victims    http://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2016/09/01/
*IDPs in north-east Nigeria cannot farm due to landmines    icirnigeria.org/idps-northeast-cant-farm-due-landmines/
*Nigeria may regret swap deal with BH - Prof. Albert    http://punchng.com/nigeria-may-regret-swap-deal-boko-haram/
*Governing our humanitarian crisis    jibrinibrahim.com/governing-our-humanitarian-crisis...
*DSS arrests BH IED specialist, others in Kano    www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/09/05/dss-arrests-boko-haram

17th September, 2016

*UNDP Nigeria projects to focus on de-radicalisation, conflict transformation & migration    http://www.ng.undp.org/content/nigeria/en/home/
*Two million Nigerians trapped in BH-controlled areas - UN    https://t.co/bOA5GjKW3s
*Understanding BH recruitment    www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/09/19/understanding-boko-haram-recruitment
*4 Chibok girls among newly matriculated students at AUN    www.thisdaylive.com/index.php/2016/09/07/four-chibok-schoolgirls-among-newly...
*BH kills 8 church worshipers near Chibok    https://t.co/5g51xpoeyg
*BH: 13 churches affected, 15,000 schools...    www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/.../boko-haram
*Bullets & bombing wont prevent violent extremism. Here's what will.    http://www.huffingtonpost.com/neal-kenyguyer/prevent-violent...
*Militancy & the era of instability    us11.campaign-archive1.com/

22nd September, 2016

*Sex boom in Borno as displaced women, children take to prostitution for survival    http://wp.me/p3Yx1r-dle
*Minister Al-Hassan slumps in Adamawa IDP camps    http://wp.me/p3Yx1r_dU
*Use evidence, not fear, to counter terror    https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/use-evidence...
*#Nigeria #BokoHaram   The in-patient therapeutic feeding centre in Maiduguri    https://t.co/H2oYo4Eocl
*Will changes in BH leadership revive local support?    https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/will-changes-in-boko-haram...
*BH rages in Nigeria, but the world's eyes elsewhere    https://t.co/xy71sEuAW9
*BH war displaces i million children, destroys 910 schools - UN    www.premiumtimesng.com/news/headlines/.../boko-haram-war-displaces...
*Indigenes donate 5,000 men to secure Bama town    leadership.ng/news/551841/bama-indigenes-donate-5000-men-to-secure-the-town

28th September, 2016

*More unregistered BH IDPs in Yola South LGA. They say 'We're never going back to Maiduguri    https://t.co.TXJlnJi4w9
*Nigeria lost $5.9b to BH insurgency    http://t.co/EQ2DTHgoDV
*Defiance on the dance floor: Clubbing in the birthplace of BH    https://www.theguardiancom/world/2016/sep/27/clubbing-birthplace-boko-haram...
*Why world leaders must act on the crisis in north-east Nigeria    https://t.co/2mHYzOXial
*Borno to rebuild churches destroyed by BH    guardian.ng/news/borno-to-rebuild-churches-destroyed-by-boko-haram/
*YS invests $50m in Niger drone base for counter-terrorism    www.bbc.com/news/world-africa...
*Soldier assists wailing women in labour to give birth at village near BH zone    https://t.co/vu8Lx3uARw    https://t.co/R6VX4j459s
*Proscribing the Islamic Movement in Nigeria: A plea for second thoughts    https://t.co/S5FbcbmfhZ

14th October, 2016

*Anti-Shiite violence spreads to Kano, Sokoto, Katsina- 8 killed    https://t.co/QBGSJSR4Jl
*A staggering hunger crisis is unfolding in Nigeria, & the world is barely aware    http://www.washingtonpost.com/.../they-survived-boko-haram...
*Attacks on Shiites: No to opening another conflict front    In.is/saharareporters
*Death & war across northern states as Takfiris attack Shia Muslims    newsrescue.com/death-war-across-northern-states...
*How to counter extremist views: Try agreeing with them    http://www.latimes.com/science/...
*Senate passes North-East Development Commission Bill (NEDC)    www.premiumtimes.com/news/.../senate-passes-north-east...
*Nigeria approves N4b to fight malnutrition in the north-east/...

7th November, 2016

*Lt. Col. Abu Ali was preparing for Samsiba operation when he was killed    https://www.thecableng/exclusive-lt-col-abu-ali-was-preparing-for-sambisa-operation
*Nigeria Police train local hunters in intelligence gathering    linkis.com/premiumtimesng.com/EIlyv
*Nigerian Army officially declares 46 soldiers missing    http://www.premiumtimesng.com/.../216039-exclusive-nigeria...
*600,000 IDPs in Monguno, north-east Nigeria alone    https://www.theguardian.com/.../boko-haram-nigeria-famine-hunger
*Nigerians living in communities liberated by BH suffering terribly    https://t.co/lOyZlwL4Yh



   









  

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