The production of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) as a result of ethnic and communal conflicts, national disasters and sundry causes in the twentieth century has spilled over into the twenty-first century. Perhaps apart from the huge external debts owed outside sources, there is nothing else as pervading as the painfully agonizing issue of refugees and displaced persons. They both seem to defy early solution and seem to emanate from the same denominator.
While the debts represent squandered resources, the refugee problem bears vivid witness to squandered opportunities to build healthy nations out of independent Africa. From Western Sahara through Liberia, Nigeria, Chad, Sudan, Somalia, Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola and Zaire, there is hardly much going on apart from the issue of refugees and IDPs...how to accommodate, care for and feed them. Refugees have spilled over not only to neighboring countries, but in nearly all cases, their presence is felt across the entire continent and even beyond.
The refugee situation is painful and destructive for even citizens who survive wars and natural disasters. The tragic crises which uproot whole communities and nation-states, lead to the dislocation of the populace, both within and demarcated territories. The displaced persons are traumatized, their social and economic lives are disrupted. The limited resources of the host or recipient country which accommodates these refugees are stretched to unbearable limits.
The host country soon experiences increase in crime rate, diseases and breach of cultural norms as a result of the influx of refugees. Oftentimes, these refugees overstay their welcome. Even for the refugee-producing countries, life cannot be the same with the rushed exodus of erstwhile compatriots. The destruction of highly-priced property and the damage of the national psyche are sore points.
We are at the stage today, where Africans, their governments and organizations need to do more in terms of quality of assistance and timeliness of intervention to alleviate the suffering of their displaced brothers and sisters. Women, children and aged, the poor and the lowly are invariably the ready victims.
We therefore need to speedily address the refugee crisis by probing further to ascertain the root causes in order to halt the cycle of conflict/national disasters - IDPs/Refugees. The forced migration of today, that takes the form of refugee-generation, is perniciously distracting the populace from normal economic pursuit at a time when knowledge and boundless opportunities exist for economic growth and development. Besides, the trans-border nature of today's forced displacement is negatively affecting both individuals and state organizations. There is therefore a pressing need to delve into the causes of Africa's refugee phenomenon and proffer enduring solutions.
See my Blog post on my 2010 publication titled: 'The African Refugee Phenomenon' by Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa dayokusa.blogspot.com/2013/12/the-african-refugee-phenomenon-edited.html
Refugees and IDPs can be classified into three broad categories based on the prevailing causes:
1) Crisis refugees as a result of human conflicts. A small segment of this group could be political refugees who could end up as asylum seekers.
2) Environmental refugees resulting from natural and environmental disasters, such as earthquake, flood and desertification.
3) Economic refugees consist of individuals/groups that are unable to support themselves in their places of usual abode. They become IDPs or refugees in order to enhance their economic status...
*Refugee team for the Olympics edition.cnn.com/2016/06/03/sport/rio-olympics-refugee-team/index,html
*Maiduguri alone has over 2million IDPs, mainly women & children https://www.facebook.com/hashtag/worldrefugeeday
*Refugees: 65million people are displaced, the majority across 10 countries https://t.co/CjlRekQb6D #WorldRefugeeDay
*Abandoned, hundreds face death in Bama displaced persons camp https://t.co/dZLuvTwnl
*Bodies of 34 migrants found in Niger desert http://gu.com/P/4ycgc/
*Long-term support for displaced populations in Africa www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2016/05/31/new-long-term-support-for-displaced-populations-in-africa
*Refugee stories from Glee star & UNHCR supporter trib.al/Xx7UTvr #WithRefugees
*#TeamRefugees: Champions against all odds youtube.com
*Share the migration burden, says Africa https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/share-the-migration...
*Over 450 body bags containing the remains of unknown #Migrants from the #Mediterranean are being stored in Milan https://t.co/XKdBT9EAHZ
*Population displacement in Africa: Top 10 countries of origin africacentre.org/spotlight/population-displacement-africa-countries-origin-refugees...
*Big retailers caught using Syrian refugee children in factories cnn.it/2e0h9tt
*At least 3,740 refugees & migrants have died crossing the Mediterranean in 2016 - This is the worst UNHCR has seen https://t.co/b1Xk9TDDvy
*In Geneva, human smugglers in Libya, Turkey & the Sahel talk about their trade #migrants issafrica.org/events/dynamic
*Human trafficking most profitable illegal business https://t.co/JaHcvxcOB3
*Nigerian refugee widows provide comfort to each other in Minawao camp, Cameroon, by singing about their husbands who were killed by BH https://t.co/c21g1ilHSX
*Gathering gifts for South Sudanese refugees unhcr.org/news/.../20...
*Protecting migrants: What should the AU do? https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/protecting-migrants-what-should-the-au-do? https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/protecting-migrants-what-should-the-au-do
*Nigeria: About 100,000 Nigerian refugees have fled to Niger to escape BH's violence https://t.co/aKUwB9yCBL
*Canadians who welcomed Syrian refugees with compassion & support trib.al/fJxBHys
*UN migration on refugee resettlement to the US unhcr.org/news/.../2017
*PM Justin Trudeau says Canada welcomes refugees fxn.ws/2kflWcp
*Consequences of Trump's refugee policies aje.io/2x2q
*One in every 113 people on earth is an asylum seeker, IDP or a refugee https://twitter.com/refugees
*Starbucks pledges to hire 10,000 refugees cnn.it/2jHBxkb
*Africa most affected by refugee crisis https://t.co/uD1T30Xnpc
*Needs of women refugees often ignored unwo.men/YQ90308y1e4
*Iranian-American man affected by US refugee ban crisis https://t.co/ajKcOeWuuH
*How do refugees normally get through US borders? yhoo.it/2jrlurb
*A collection of moving stories from refugees & creators around the world goo.gl/jBh5Zw #WorldRefugeeDay
*More than 1,200 die of starvation and illness at Nigeria's Bama refugee camp https://www.theguardian.com/world/2016/jun/23/refugees-die-starvation-illnesss-nigeria
*UN releases N3.7b to IDPs www.premiumtimesng.com/news/more-news/206034-un-releases-n3-7-billion-internally...
*Nigeria: Re-telling IDPs' stories using visual data & infographics #IDPs Tracker https://t.co/BBQAhgyVfs https://t.co/YWU3XTAs4m
*At 115 years old, Eida could be Syria's oldest refugee, and she has one remaining wish cnn.it/2dPcV6z
*Boston's art installation takes on refugee crisis edition.cnn.com/2016/10/13/us/refugee-art-installation-boston
*Nigeria beyond BH http://www.usip.org/events/nigeria-beyond-boko-haram
*Turkey's refugee crisis: The politics of permanence https://www.crisisgroup/europe-central-asia/...
*Economic impact of migration wef.ch/2fF1TyW
*At the edge: Trends & routes in North Africa's clandestine migrants https://issafrica.org/.../at-the-edge-trends-and-routes...
*Understanding human smuggling https://www.issafrica.org/about-us/.../understanding-human-smuggling
*International Migrants Day ow.ly/Apz8307bUMV
*Migrants sent $1trn home last year wef.ch/2hwyM2B
*Mali sends back migrants deported by France https://t.co/d32VvZ8R7W
*18 year-old Hauwa Bulus learnt English in an IDP camp in Maiduguri & was one of the 18 winners of the ProtectingEdu contest https://twitter.com/asorock/status/...
*IDPs: Nigeria's situation catastrophic https://t.co/UKMlev3qFP
*Refugees are often caught in the cross hairs of persecution - Angelique Julie nyti.ms/2k5ws5w
*Impact og migration on productivity wef.ch/2l4XlEj
*5 essentials for the first 72 hours of disaster response https://medium.com/@UNOCHA/5-essentials...
*Merkel offers cash handouts for migrants to leave Germany http://www.google.com/amp/www.dailymail.co.uk/...
*Interactive map shows where the world's migrants are from & where they are going wef.ch/290Zxwc
*Africa needs continental response to the #migration crisis. Is the AU ready? #27th AU Summit issafrica.org/media-room/vid...
*Correct the most damaging myths about refugees & migrants on.unesco.org/29bYhVQ
*Middle school bullies are tough: They're even worse if you're a refugee huff.to/29gbec0
*Millions of children & families displaced by flood, ravaged by drought uni.cf/29m3lOb
*The power of altruism http://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/08/opinion/the-power-of-altruism
*Refugees & migrants: The difference? http://t.co/Fi8lDUTkes https://t.co/Oz0mFYQuLw
*EU agrees to boost efforts to tackle illegal migration from Africa www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-eu...
*Calais migrant camp: The things they left behind edition.cnn.com/2016/10/27/world/calais-things-left-behind/...
*Beyond the headlines: Quantifying the economic contributions of migrants wef.ch/2kANhGO
*UN refugee chief warns against politicising plight of refugees https://t.co/CqLBexTKud
*Closing its doors to refugees is not likely to make America safer https://t.co/bDPYUOwhu1
*Refugee policy should be based on facts, not fear - Angelina Jolie https://www.nytimes.com/2017/02/02/opinion/angelina
*More than 1,200 people die of starvation in Nigeria's refugee camp after fleeing BH http://christiantimes.com/article/more-than-1200-people...
*Richest nations host less than 9% of refugees edition.cnn.com/2016/07/18/world/oxfam-richest-countries-refugees
*Give humanitarian support www.icermediation.org/what-we-do/give-humanitarian-support/
*Somalia: Will its refugee & displacement crises ever be solved? https://www.insightonconflict.org/blog/blog/2016/07/
*We are creating the extremists of the future out of child refugees https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/child-refugees-syria-lebanon-terrorism-education...
*5 South Sudan refugees will be competing in the #RioOlympics ow.ly/oalh302KliM
*UNICEF has delivered aid to thousands of refugees from #Syria stranded on the border with Jordan uni.cf/2aAkc86
*Syrian refugees design app for navigating German bureaucracy uni.cf/2aGpnAW
*Dearborn museum seeks to reflect broader range of immigrants www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/wayne/2016/08/15/arab/museum-dearborn-exhibits/
*Ground truths: Local humanitarians in conflict https://www.odi.org/events...
*Secret aid worker: People are hungry & I have food that can't be delivered https://t.co/MLuPR1ibH6
*Migration in focus: Adding African voices https://www.issafrica.org/events/migration
*UN asks Nigeria to establish policy to address IDPs' problems www.channelstv.com/2016/08/23/un-asks-nigeria-to-establish-policy-to-address-idps...
*Hungry & traumatised, IDPs go on rampage in Maiduguri, block highway www.premiumtimesng.com/news/top-news/209279-breking-hungry-and-traumatised-id
*Helping refugees is the 'moral imperative of our time' http://www.kpax.com/story/32847315/helping-refugees-is...
*Nearly half of all refugees are children - UNICEF https://www.theguardian.com/global/development/2016/sep/07/nearly-half-of-all-refugees...
*The total number of IDPs identified i 13 states of Nigeria as at 31st August, 2016 in Nigeria is 2,093,030 IDPs (370,389 households) https://t.co/bBmCGHgpML
*About 50 million children are refugees or migrants edition.cnn.com/2016/09/07/world/unicef-report-on-child-refugees-and-migrants/
*Immigrants don't commit more crimes. Why does the myth persist? www.latimes.com/opinion/op-ed/la-oe-bersani-piquero-immigrant-crime...
*Misery of Nigerian refugees & IDPs by Jibrin Ibrahim opinion.premiumtimes.com/2014/12/22/misery-nigerian-refugees...
*6 out of 7 of the Americans who won Nobel prizes are immigrants - The Slaughter & Rees Report goo.gl/z1NeB9 #WorldStatisticsDay
*Put children first protect #refugees & #migrant children uni.cf/2eoROSe
*WACSOF, UNHCR launch project on the reduction of statelessness in Nigeria http://www.sharpedgenews.com/index...
*Migration, Refugees & Displacement www.undp.org/migration
*The time is now for collective action on migration & displacement www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/blog/2016/9/1/the-time-is-now-for-collective-action...
*What's driving the global refugee crisis? https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/what-s-driving-global-refugee-crisis
*Refugee summit should address conflict prevention https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/refugee-summit-should-address-conflict-prevention...
*UN Summit for Refugees & Migrants 2016 #Refugees welcome: Helping the helpers on exposure stories.undp.org/refugeeswelcome-helping-the-helpers
*What 3 generations of refugees can teach the UN edition.cnn.com/2016/09/19/europe/un-summit-refugees-migrants/...
*Several African NGOs banned from attending UN Summit on refugees https://t.co/MnNJnGTq1G
*IOM joins the UN as the #UN Migration Agency https://t.co/QkTWgsojbp
*People will go great lengths to help #refugees. Will governments? #UN4RefugeesMigrants https://t.co/kbL92Tn9JY
*More than 800 immigrants mistakenly granted citizenship https://www.yahoo.com/news/more-800-immigrants...
*Lebanon needs help to cope with refugee influx https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/lebanon...
*For some Syrian women, refugee life proves unexpectedly liberating https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/middle-east/for-some-syrian-women-refugee-life-proves...
*Why I'm investing $500m in migrants - George Soros http://www.wsj.com/article/why-im-investing-500-million...
*The screening process of refugee entry into the US https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/
*Irregular migration: Nigeria's Senate joins forces to halt death of Nigerians leadership.ng/features/.../irregular-migration-senate...
*Protecting migrants: What should the AU do? https://www.issafrica.org/iss-today/protecting-migrants...
*Refugees in the US wonder if they'll have a home in Trump's America huff.to/2gJSGqp
*Statelessness Podcast https://soundcloud.com/user-56171208/statelessness-podcast
*Refugees & VE https://issafrica-report/fleeing-terror-fighting-terror-the-truth-about-refugees-and-violent-extremism
*Migrants make significant contribution to both the home & host countries refugeesmigrants.un.org/infographics #ForMigration
*Tracking human trafficking in Myanmar https://t.co/jWONGB08bd
*Family ties: Immigrants will send almost 650 billion Euros home in 2019 https://www.independent.ie/business/world/family-ties-immigrants-will-send-almost-630b-home-this-year...
*Irregular migration: Nigeria now number 6 in the world! https://nextier.spd.com/download/voyage-of-life-or-death/
*How Uganda & UNHCR failed refugees https://issafrica.org/iss-today/how-uganda-and-unhcr-failed-refugees
*Rohingya: In a city of refugees, design saves lives https://www.citylab.com/equity/2019/09/rohingya-refugees-kutupalong-camp-design-myanmar-bangladesh/597076/
*Pathway to ending the scourge of statelessness https://www.independent.co.uk/happylist/a-pathway-to-ending-the-scourge-of-statelessness-a9133521.html
*A third of US Nobel Prize winners are immigrants edition.cnn.com/2019/10/14/us/nobel-prizes-immigrants/
*Africans & Irregular Migration dayokusa.blogspot.com/2019/11/africans-irregular-migration.html
*Refugee women promote hygiene in camps amid COVID-19 fears news.trust.org/item/20200311121342-ncyuh/
*Refugees have the right to work and access labour markets http://www.fmreview.org/economics/zetter-ruaudel/