Sunday 26 November 2017


The 'twin-city conferences' on 'Strategies and techniques for whistle-blowing and tracing property purchased and investments from proceeds of bribery and corruption transferred to the West and tax havens' moved from Lagos to Abuja on the 23rd of November, 2017. The conference was hosted by the Kent Law School, University of Kent and sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation in collaboration with the Institute of International Education (IIE). The other partners were Corner House, Global Witness, Finance Uncovered and Human & Environmental Development Agenda (HEDA Resource Centre). A unique aspect of the conference was the 'klepto tour' on the second day, when participants were taken on a guided tour of property seized by the Economic & Financial Crimes Crimes Commission (EFCC) in Abuja.

I was a resource person at the conference, specifically for the session on 'What works and what has been failing: Multi-disciplinary approaches and best practices in asset recovery operations and international partners' engagement'. My submission was that beyond tracing noxious funds, prevention of such magnitude of looting needs to be prioritised through stricter procurement laws, building of strong institutions rather than strong individuals and mainstreaming women into the anti-corruption debate, since they bear the brunt of an empty treasury necessitated by graft, which excludes citizens from quality education, health care, infrastructure, etc.

Some of the other critical issues discussed were:

*Conducting company and land registry searches and the use of the Freedom of Information Act in Nigeria
*The A-Z of international company and property search.
*Breaking corruption scandals at home and abroad: The citizen as journalist and the journalist as citizen.
*Tracing noxious illicit financial flows: Updates on the law and practice of asset recovery from Europe to Africa.
*Navigating Nigeria's perilous terrain of grand corruption from whistle-blowing to convictions: A case for criminal justice reforms.
*Anatomy of national and international criminal law and the prosecution of international financial crimes.
*Identifying, investigating and linking enablers of money laundering and hidden off-shore assets
*Tracking bloody oil and diamonds: Research and resilience in holding power to account.
*Next steps: What is needed to form a partnership against corruption among Nigerian activists in furtherance of asset recovery.

Some of the participants were:

*Dr. Gbenga Oduntan -  Associate Prof, Kent Law School, University of Kent, UK
*Olanrewaju Suraju - Chair, HEDA Resource Centre & Civil Society Network Against Corruption (CSNAC)
*Dr. Kole Shettima -  Director, MacArthur Foundation, Abuja
*Ibrahim Magu -  Ag. Chairman, EFCC
*Prof Bolaji Owasanoye - Executive Secretary, Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption
*Femi Falana - SAN, Lawyer
*Akin Ajibola - Lawyer
*Nicholas Hildyard - Founder/Director, The Corner House
*Simon Taylor - Director, Global Witness, UK
*Lionel Faull - Investigative Journalist, Finance Uncovered, UK
*Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa - Independent Consultant/Conflict Transformation Expert
*Antonio Enricho - Italian Engineer/Analyst/Editor
*Prof Yemi Akinseye-George - SAN, Nigerian Professor of Public Law
*Dr. Fatima Waziri-Azi - Project Officer, PACAC
*Kayode Ogundamisi - Blogger/Activist

The conference was targeted at anti-corruption activists, media practitioners, compliance officers, anti-corruption agencies, opinion leaders, bloggers, lawyers, conflict transformation specialists, mediators, etc. The course offered practical, doctrinal and procedural introduction to researching UK, USA and some other countries' property ownership and company registries, using public sources of information. Real life problem scenarios were solved under supervision by expert facilitators.

At the end of the day, participants were able to quiz world-renowned experts who have worked on some of the high profile anti-corruption investigations in the UK, with a view to being able to conduct such search un-assisted. It was suggested that beyond the whistle-blower policy, there should be a whistle-blower law, Proceeds of crime Act and Foreign corrupt practices Act. A new coalition of concerned citizens was born, who could effectively conduct searches where there is suspicion of illicit transfer of funds.

The conference was indeed a major addition to the armoury of the anti-corruption crusade. My suggestion is that the trained individuals should form the core of local resource persons who could train others - Training of other potential Trainers (TOT). The conference should not be a one-off affair, but a once or twice yearly undertaking to update knowledge in this field...

Related Links

*Security vote fuels corruption in Nigeria 2.pdf
*Illicit Financial Flows (IFF) in Africa: Drivers, destinations & policy options
*New trends in IFF from Africa
*FinCEN Files (US Financial Crimes Enforcement Network): Leaked documents reveal worlwide money laundering
*Global bank stocks plunge following FinCEN Files revelations
*Overhaul US anti-money laundering system & prioriise against illicit finance   #FinCENFiles
*'Fighting corruption is dangerous': The story behind the headlines by Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala
*$260m bribe: Chinese court sentences former Chairman of Bank to death
*How to fix Nigeria's worsening corruption stain
*Nigeria: Ecological funds & the cost of corruption (A CDD Documentary)
*How might faith-based actors play a role in changing values and norms of corruption? 

Photo below: Dr. Gbenga Oduntan @ one of the seized houses during the 'klepto tour' in Abuja
Below L-R: Nicholas Hildyard, Founder/President, The Corner House & Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa at the Abuja post conference dinner.   

Tuesday 21 November 2017


A new dawn seems to have been birthed on the 20th of November, 2017 in Abuja when the interactive session between the Senior Special Assistant (SSA) to President Buhari on Justice Reform, Barr. Juliet Ibekaku, and CSOs emphasised the need for the latter to collaborate with government by monitoring fund recovery. The forum was part of the 'Buharimeter Dialogue series'  hosted by Centre for Democracy & Development (CDD), with support from Open Society Initiative for West Africa (OSIWA), UKaid and DFID.

I was at the event as a member of the CSO community in Nigeria. Some other NGOs and CBOs, apart from the convener, CDD, were present. Specifically, CSOs were being invited to monitor the recovery of $321m loot with the Swiss government. See for example

In my intervention, I was concerned about the fact that investigations into allegations of corruption are done in a 'slip-shoddy' manner which makes prosecution difficult and convictions almost always impossible. Ibekaku's response was that the on-going reforms in the criminal justice system would address the process of investigation in a more orderly fashion.

Many of the NGOs and CBOs were worried about the terms of reference (TOR) for engagement with government on the recovery of the said loot. Ibekaku said the NGOs should get back to government as regards their thoughts on the subject matter. All the viewpoints would then be harmonised to produce a final TOR. Besides, the Open Government Partnership (OGP) - OGP Nigeria National Action Plan (NAP) document was launched on behalf of the FGN by Ibekaku.

The CSOs want the recovered loot channeled into 'social safety nets' for the populace while the government is interested in using same to fund the 2018 budget. For the CSOs, government could use such recovered loot to fund the budget, provided the money is channeled into projects that would positively affect disadvantaged groups in the society. Bilateral agreements on recovery of assets have  been secured with many countries, including the UK, France, USA, UAE, etc. Ibekaku said the ICPC and EFCC Acts need to be reviewed to accommodate seizure and confiscation of Nigeria's stolen monies domiciled in foreign countries.  

 While we await the fine-tuning of the TOR, this is indeed a welcome initiative that would further 'cement' government-CSOs positive collaboration for the empowerment of Nigerian citizens.

Related Links

*Action Aid, others, blame Nigeria's slow economic development on corruption
*3 ways to fight corruption and restore trust in leadership: Corruption costs the world $3.6trn a year    https;//
*Kleptocracy: The need for an International Anti-Corruption Court

Friday 10 November 2017


The fourth Strategic Conflict Assessment (SCA) of Nigeria and the accompanying National Action Plan (NAP) were presented in Abuja, November 9, 2017 by the Institute for Peace and Conflict Resolution (IPCR), Abuja. I retired as a Director from IPCR in 2010. At the event, I was affectionately referred to by the anchors as 'Mama IPCR', a subtle allusion to the fact that I left positive and indelible footprints on the sands of time in the institution.  I was the very first and only female Director of IPCR to date!

The first three SCAs were produced in 2003, 2008 and 2012 respectively. I led the south-west team for the 2003 and 2012 field work (See p.96 of the 2003 SCA and p.212 of the 2012 SCA). This is the first time the SCA and NAP are launched simultaneously. It is also the first time the NAP is launched as a separate document, beyond being mentioned in the text of the SCA.

Some of the persons present were:

Geoffrey Onyeama - Minister of Foreign Affairs
Hon. Khadija Abba Ibrahim - Minister of State, Foreign Affairs
Prof. Oshita Oshita - DG IPCR
Gen. Habila Naaba represented Gen. (Rtd) T.Y. Danjuma - Victim Support Fund (VSF), Nigeria
Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa - Conflict Transformation Expert/Former Director, IPCR
Prof. Sunday Ochoche - Executive Director, VSF
Dr. Ojezo represented UN Resident Coordinator
Dr. Ibn Chambas - UNSG's Special Envoy for West Africa
Commander J.G. Jaja represented Chief of Naval Staff
Dr. Godwin Ocheni represented Senator Shehu Sanni - Chair, Senate Committee on & Foreign Debts
Prof. Godwin Sogolo - Former Director, IPCR
Boss Mustapha represented - Secretary to the Government of the Federation
Dr. (Mrs) Jane Soboke represented Col (Rtd) Hameed Alli - Comptroller General of Customs
Paulo Yagudki represented Nikolay Udovichenko - Ambassador of the Embassy of Russia to Nigeria
Rear Admiral Stanford Eno represented General Gabriel Olonisakin - Chief of Defense Staff
Jens-Petter Kjemprud - Norwegian Ambassador to Nigeria
Patrick Mayen - Conflict Adviser, DFID

The SCA seeks to 'provide Government and other stakeholders with informed and unbiased analysis of conflicts and their implication for the peace and security of the country (See page 13 of SCA 2016). The key findings and conclusions are as follows (See pages 18-20 of SCA).

*Compared with the previous editions of the SCA, changes have occurred in the context, weaponry, actors, protraction, spontaneity, geographical scope and victims of conflicts around the country. For example, armed non-state actors (ANSAs) from within and outside the country have emerged, often led by warlords.

*There is a transnational and global dimension to the sources of rage, grievances, weapons and conflict entrepreneurs.

*The concept of 'prebendalism' (money politics) seems to have changed in the last few years. Prebendalism has become even more pronounced, edging out committed patriots who could have contested in the political terrain.

*In the Niger Delta, the Amnesty programme is embroiled in allegations of corruption. More needs to be done in this area.

*The fault lines of ethnicity and religion as bases of electoral choices have had negative effects in the polity.

*Ethnic and religious minorities have become more resistant and sometimes violent.

*DDRRR efforts in some states are not devoid of partiality.

*Having used militias as enforcers in winning elections, many states are saddled with dangerous small arms & light weapons (SALWs).

*Paucity of funds makes CSOs incapable of going beyond advocacy.

*'He who pays the piper still dictates the tune' in the media. Conflict-sensitive reporting is necessary.

*There should be public-private partnership for effective peace-building.

*Women and children, among the vulnerable groups are fast becoming active conflict actors - e.g. as suicide bombers and protesters against the invasion of their communities.  

 There were quite a number of useful comments and suggestions at the event:

*The IPCR should be moved back to the Presidency. It is quite restricted with Ministry of Foreign Affairs as its supervising Ministry.

*There is a bit of 'analytical timidity' in the report. 'Let's call a spade a spade: Could it be a faction of Boko Haram (Al Banami) that is operating as 'herdsmen' in north-central Nigeria?'

*The role of government agencies like the Victim Support Fund (VSF) and others, set up to ameliorate the effect of conflict not mentioned in report.

*The Federal government should wake up to its responsibility of funding IPCR adequately. It's a shame that even the SCA being presented to the public was funded by donor agencies!

*There is a nexus between peace/security and good governace/development.

*The NAP, which emanates from the SCA should be integrated into the programmes of all relevant government agencies to guarantee efficient implementation of the recommendations. Peace-Building should be mainstreamed into all government programmes.

*Good governance, which entails the policy of inclusion, could be useful in mitigating conflict. 

*Lessons should be learnt from the first NAP which was too 'top heavy'. Besides, the rift at the highest level of governance affected implementation. This should not be allowed to happen again.

*Only 'implementable' policies should be enacted.

*The NAP & SCA should be used for conflict-sensitive work at all levels.

The NAP is expected to intervene through the following sub-committees:

*Security Sector Reform (SSR)

*Early Warning & Early Response (EWER)

*Political Conflict (PoC)

*Social & Economic Conflict (SoEC)

*Mainstreaming Conflict Prevention (MCoP)
On the whole, I commend the IPCR for painstakingly putting together an impressive NAP & SCA. It is easy to criticise. After reading the two documents, I suggest stakeholders should send constructive comments to the management of IPCR. Such comments might help guide the researchers for the next SCA & NAP. Kudos to IPCR for presenting these two useful documents to the public.   

Wednesday 8 November 2017


The book titled 'Nigeria's Space Journey: Understanding its past, Reshaping its future' by Dr. Adigun Ade Abiodun was launched in Abuja on the 6th of November, 2017. Dr. Abiodun is currently a member of the AU Space Working Group. He was a Senior Special Assistant (SSA) to President Olusegun Obasanjo on Space Science & Technology (2000-2003). He was a post-doctoral fellow at the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing in Ottawa (1974-1976). The book was presented in three Nigerian cities - Lagos (University of Lagos), Abuja (National Universities Commission) and Ile-Ife (Obafemi Awolowo University). For more on Dr. Abiodun, see his LinkedIn profile -

At the presentation, I could identify the following:

Dr. Adigun Ade Abiodun - Author
Mrs. Abiodun - Author's wife
Prof. Rafiu Akindele - Nasaraawa State University/Author's childhood friend
Prof. Michael Faborode - Secretary-General of the Committee of VCs of Nigerian Universities
Hakeem Ajijola - Executive Chairman, Consultancy Support Services/Book Reviewer
Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa - Independent Consultant/Conflict Transformation Expert
Adenike Adeyanju-Osadolor - Publisher, ABBI Books
Representatives of DG NASRDA, Prof. Seidu Mohammed
Representative of the Executive Secretary of the NUC, Prof. Abubakar Rasheed
Aliyu Aziz, Executive Secretary, NIMC

 The reviewer of the book, Hakeem Ajijola did a splendid job. By the time he completed his comprehensive review of the 400 page book with interesting anecdotes and experiences he had while working on various projects with the author, I actually got the impression that I had read the book without having done so! The book traces Nigeria's relationship with modern science and diplomacy. There have been many 'missed opportunities' and 'bad' decisions as regards space  technology.

There are six sections in the book, which include: Space in human life, Space efforts in Nigeria, Re-awaking Nigeria, Nigeria's space priorities, and Moving ahead. Indigenous technology should be 'harvested' for space development in Nigeria, rather than 'importing and deploying' foreign technology hook, line and sinker! It was a mistake for Nigeria to have swallowed the bait of 'micro satellite for developing countries' instead of developing such technology from scratch using indigenous knowledge. The bitter lesson learnt from this mistake is that Nigeria's space efforts have not delivered as promised.

Nigeria should focus on downstream space technology and re-jig the curriculum of tertiary institutions in the country to reflect this reality. I (Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa) am particularly interested in the use of space technology for peaceful purposes because I am a conflict transformation expert. Space technology can be used for weather forecast, satellite imagery, agricultural land use, mapping hydrocarbon and other mineral deposit potentials, disaster management, earth observation, remote sensing, geo-scientific ground investigation, etc. In 2007, Dr. Abiodun and I wrote chapters in a book edited by Prof. Bola Akinterinwa (former DG, NIIA). See the references below:

Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa, "Nigeria's satellite technology: Development, peaceful uses and challenges" in Bola Akinterinwa (ed.), Nigeria's National Interests in a Globalising World: Further Reflections on Constructive & Beneficial Concentricism (Ibadan: Bolytag International Publishers, 2007), ISBN 978-978-082-167-8, pp. 80-110

Adigun Ade Abiodun, "Space Enterprise and Nigeria's National Interests" in Bola Akinterinwa (ed.), Nigeria's National Interests in a Globalising World: Further Reflections on Constructive & Beneficial Concentricism (Ibadan: Bolytag International Publishers, 2007), ISBN 978-978-082-167-8, pp. 31-79 

Dr. Abiodun said he wrote the book because he wanted to put on record in a concise and systematic manner his foray into, and 'interventions' in the area of space technology with special reference to Nigeria. A think tank should be set up to constantly advise government at every turn on the right path to pursue as regards space technology. We should learn from the experiences of other countries. It is imperative for us to employ indigenous knowledge vis-a-vis space technology.

Related Links

*Geo-spatial Sciences & Space Law: Legal Aspects of Earth Observation, Remote Sensing & Geo-scientific Ground Investigation in Africa by Dr. Gbenga Oduntan
*Covid-19: When evaluators cannot make it to the field, they can always observe from space   #evaluation  #data


Sunday 5 November 2017


Photo L-R: General Abdulsalami Abubakar (Rtd), Nigeria's Fmr. Head of State/Founder AAAIPSDS & Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa

The Forum on Farmer-Herder Relations in Nigeria (FFARN), held its third meeting in Minna, Niger state on the 30th of October, 2017. The meeting was held at the instance of Search for Common Ground (SFCG) in collaboration with the Abdulsalami Abubakar Institute for Peace & Sustainable Development Studies (AAAIPSDS). I am a valued member of FFARN. The venue of the parley was Gen. Abubakar's Maizube farm in Minna. The farm occupies more than 500 hectares of land!

FFARN is a network of academics and practitioners from both governmental and non-governmental institutions. The purpose of the forum is to bridge the gap between peace practitioners and researchers, share views, experiences and discuss the dynamics of farmer-herder relations with a view to seeking sustainable solutions. The Forum also examines areas of policy research, advocacy and mobilisation, while providing a veritable platform for inter-disciplinary exchange of ideas that generate evidence for multi-level policy influencing (See for example, SFCG's TOR for FFARN).

Some of the participants at the meeting are:

*General Abdusalami Abubakar - Nigeria's fmr. Head of State
*Olubukola Ademola-Adelahin - Team Lead, SFCG
*Dr. M.A. Adedimeji - Director, CPSS, University of Ilorin
*Daniel Okafor - V.P. AFAN
*Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa, Independent Consultant/Conflict Transformation Strategist
*Dr. Diamond Nebechukwu, Director, AAIPSDS
*Abubakar Sadiq, Secretary, North-Central zone, MACBAN
*Thomas Adamu-Edor, Program Coordinator, USIP
*Lantana Abdullahi, Director of Programmes, Plateau Peace-Building Committee
*Dr. Philip Bande, Centre for Peace & Development, Veritas University
*Andy Nkemneme, Research Officer, IPCR
*David Ojelabi, FCT Chair, SPSP
*Henry Unongo, Program Manager, JDPC
*Ene Ede, Gender Advisor, SFCG
*Bitrus Dangiwa, Director, IMC
*Dr. Chris Kwaja, Research Fellow, SFCG
*Mohammed Baba, Researcher, SFCG
*Dr. Saleh Momale, Executive  Director, PARE
*Prof. Adagba Okpagu, Director, CFP, Benue State University
*Nathaniel Awuapila, CEO, CORAFID
*Dr. O.A. Oladejo, Research Fellow, IPSS
*Adeolu Adewunmi, Manager, PSN/Mercy Corps
*Toyin Falade, Executive Director, ISHD
*Haruna Dukku, Commissioner, Livestock, Niger state
*Abdullahi Adamu, Commissioner, Nomadic Affairs, Niger state

The meeting focused on the current re-escalation of violence in some communities in Plateau state as well as the passage of the Open Grazing Prohibition & Ranches Establishment Law 2017 in Benue state. Some of the recommendations from the meeting are as follows (See FFARN communique):

*Stakeholders should identify the lingering conflict as a struggle for economic survival, and desist from un-necessarily giving it ethnic and religious colouration that tend to escalate and proliferate the problem.

*Traditional methods of conflict transformation that sustained peaceful co-existence in the communities in the past should be resuscitated and strengthened to re-build trust and engender confidence-building among the various actors in the conflict, especially the farmers and herders.

*Governments, CSOs and security agencies at all levels should constantly engage one another to create robust and efficient frameworks for early warning (EW) and early response (ER) to conflict.

*Federal, state and local governments should be alive to their responsibilities as guarantors of security all citizens and decisively tackle the proliferation of SALWs in Nigeria.

*The implementation of the Open Grazing & Ranches Establishment Law in Benue State should be re-examined and treated with caution in order to ensure it does not lead to further violence and infringement of the fundamental rights of citizens.

*The security architecture in Plateau state should be reinforced in order to achieve sustainable peace and development.

*The Nigerian media should ensure conflict-sensitive reporting in order to prevent the escalation of prevalent conflicts or trigger new ones. Other stakeholders should moderate their language of engagement in a way that promotes peaceful co-existence.

*Governments, CSOs and other stakeholders should provide effective and efficient psycho-social support for victims and survivors of farmer-herder conflicts as a matter of urgency.

*Farmer-herder relations in Nigeria should be given adequate attention by the federal, state and local governments. The FG should take the lead in coordinating state interventions and creating a framework for the effective management of farmer-herder conflicts in Nigeria.

*The FG should fully implement UNSCR 1325, while paying attention to the recently launched National Action Plan (NAP) in Nigeria.

FFARN meets monthly at designated venues in Nigeria...

Related Links:

*Pastoralists/Farmers conflicts in Nigeria
*6,500 killed, $14b lost to herders/farmers clashes
*Nigeria: Herders and farmers clash over land
*Farmers/herders clashes claim 2,500 lives, $13.7b in one year - Abdusalami Abubakar
*Benue state: Dragging herdsmen to civilisation
*Climate change, water stress, conflict and migration
*Soil-less farming (Hydroponics) can end farmer-herder clashes
*In search of common ground for farmer-grazer conflicts
*Herders against farmers: Nigeria's expanding deadly conflict
*Nigeria: Benue state lost N95b to farmer-herder clashes in 4years
*A case study of north-south migration in Nigeria
*Pastoralism & Conflict in the Sudano-Sahel: A review of the literature by Leif Brottem & Andrew McDonnell
*Farmer-Pastoralist conflict in West Africa
*Nigeria: Project report on conflict mapping into incessant crises between pastoralists and farmers
*From complimentarity to conflict: A historical analysis of farmer-herder relations in Nigeria
*Cultural relations quarterly review: Farmer-herder relations in Nigeria
*Farmer-herder clashes amplify challenges for beleaguered Nigeria
*Causes, effects and resolution of farmers-nomadic cattle herders' clashes
*The role of community development committees in farmer-herder relations
*Pastoralists vs arable farmers
*Rural banditry in northern Nigeria
*Farmer-Herder crisis can cause food crisis - UN
*Farmer-Herder crisis not religious - MACBAN
*Farmer-Herder crisis may lead Nigeria to Somalia route - IPCR DG
*What Nigeria must do to stop farmer-herder clashes
*9 facts you did not know about farmer-herder conflicts in Nigeria
*Herders against farmers: Nigeria's expanding deadly conflict
*ASUU seeks solution to herdsmen-farmers' clashes
*Herdsmen-farmers' clashes today: Ecology, class & categorical politics in contemporary Nigeria
*Policy Brief: Implications of new legislation on farmer-herder conflicts in Nigeria
*Southern & Middle-Belt leaders reject Fulani Radio station funded by FG
*Soldiers caught among robbers arrested in Borno
*Boko Haram/Herdsmen: Ethnic nationalities regroup to defend terrorists
*FG begins animal census, identification
*Buhari suspends Ruga settlement plans
*Court dismisses Miyetti Allah's suit challenging open grazing law
*Move beyond army in end to farmer-herder conflicts in Nigeria
*Nigeria: Between BH & farmer-herder attacks: The complexity of the conflict
*Let's focus on underlying factors in farmer-herder conflict
*Media & peace-building roundtable on farmer-herder relations in Nigeria
*Policy Brief on Seeking security & stability: Analysis of security responses to farmer-herder conflict in the Middle Belt region of Nigeria
*Policy Brief on The impact of farmer-herder conflict on women in Adamawa, Gombe & Plateau states of Nigeria
*The effect of Covid-19 on farmers & pastoralists

30th January, 2019


On the 24th of January, 2019, the first FFARN meeting for the year was held in Abuja with Bukola Ademola-Adelehin (Project Lead FFARN, SFCG) & Katie Smith (Policy Officer, Global Affairs & Partnerships, SFCG, Washington DC) facilitating. We mapped out our strategy for the year while discussing the impact of farmer-herder relations at the state, national, regional and international levels. There was also an overview of the Conflict Mapping System earlier developed by FFARN. It was suggested that the pictorial format of the document be fine-tuned and patented to prevent plagiarists from appropriating same.

The consensus was that FFARN's advocacy should continue even more vigorously in 2019. After extensive deliberation using certain parameters, the forum arrived at the conclusion that 'Crisis of livelihoods (competition for land & water resources)' should be the focus of FFARN for 2019. Details about what specific aspect of the issue FFARN wants to focus on, who has the power to make the changes we desire, what changes are feasible in 2019, etc were trashed out! A clear distinction was then made between Advocacy, Information sharing & lobbying. SFCG's advocacy principles were spelt out.

There you have it. FFARN is good to go in the year 2019!

L-R: Dr. Dayo Oluyemi-Kusa (Independent Consultant/Conflict Transformation Strategist & Member, FFARN) & Katie Smith (Policy Officer, Global Affairs & Partnerships, SFCG, Washington DC)